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現代大學英語精讀(第2版)第五冊:U12 The Indispensable Opposition(3)

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That is why even the most ferocious dictator would rather be treated by a doctor who was free to think and speak the truth than by his own Minister of Propaganda. For there is a point, the point at which things really matter, where the freedom of others is no longer a question of their right but of our own need.

正因為這個道理,即使最兇殘的暴君也寧愿接受一位獨立思考、直言不諱的醫生的治療,而不會求助于手下的宣傳部長。因為存在著程度問題,到了那個程度情況確實嚴重了,于是他人的自由便不再是他們的權利問題,而是我們自身需要的問題。
The point at which we recognize this need is much higher in some men than in others. The totalitarian rulers think they do not need the freedom of an opposition: They exile, imprison, or shoot their opponents. We have concluded on the basis of practical experience, which goes back to Magna Carta and beyond, that we need the opposition. We pay the opposition salaries out of the public treasury.
對某些人來說,認識這種需要的程度要高于別人。極權統治者認為,他們無須保護反對派的自由,于是便對反對者處以流放、監禁或槍決。根據可以追溯到《大憲章》或更早的實際經驗,我們已經得出結論:我們需要反對派。我們的財政部向反對派支付薪金。
In so far as the usual apology for freedom of speech ignores this experience, it becomes abstract and eccentric rather than concrete and human. The emphasis is generally put on the right to speak, as if all that mattered were that the doctor should be free to go out into the park and explain to the empty air why I have a stomachache. Surely that is a miserable caricature of the great civic right which men have bled and died for. What really matters is that the doctor should tell me what ails me, that I should listen to him; that if I do not like what he says I should be free to call in another doctor; and that then the first doctor should have to listen to the second doctor; and that out of all the speaking and listening, the give-and-take of opinions, the truth should be arrived at.
如果為言論自由而做的通常辯護忽視了這種經驗,辯護就變得抽象怪異,而不再是具體的合乎人性的。一般偏重的是說話權利,似乎至關重要的是醫生應該自由走進公園,對著空空如也的空氣說明我胃痛的原因。無疑這是對多少人為之流血犧牲的偉大民權的一種可悲嘲諷。問題真正的關鍵在于:醫生應該把折磨我的病情告訴我本人,我也應該聽從醫囑;如果覺得他的話不順耳,我應該可以另請高明;那時第一位醫生應該聽聽第二位醫生的意見;大家邊說邊聽,交換意見,應該求得真理。
This is the creative principle of freedom of speech, not that it is a system for the tolerating of error, but that it is a system for finding the truth. It may not produce the truth, or the whole truth all the time, or often, or in some cases ever.
這是言論自由的創造性原則,并非說它是一種容忍錯誤的體制,而是說它是一種發現真理的體制。它可能產生不了真理,永遠、經常或總是在某些情形中產生不了全部真理。

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recognize ['rekəgnaiz]

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vt. 認出,認可,承認,意識到,表示感激

 
propaganda [.prɔpə'gændə,prɔpə'gændə]

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n. 宣傳,宣傳的內容

 
emphasis ['emfəsis]

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n. 強調,重點

 
miserable ['mizərəbl]

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adj. 悲慘的,痛苦的,貧乏的

 
principle ['prinsəpl]

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n. 原則,原理,主義,信念

 
abstract ['æbstrækt]

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n. 摘要,抽象的東西
adj. 抽象的,理論

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apology [ə'pɔlədʒi]

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n. 道歉;勉強的替代物

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eccentric [ik'sentrik]

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adj. 古怪的,反常的,不同圓心的
n. 怪

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concrete ['kɔnkri:t]

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adj. 具體的,實質性的,混凝土的
n. 水

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creative [kri'eitiv]

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adj. 創造性的

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